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時間:2022-08-16 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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双语热点:整个国家“断联”!全球海底电缆有多脆弱?******

现今,海底电缆已是全球化和全球通信的基石。百万公里的海底电缆环绕全球,提供各大洲之间的互联网和通信连接。这一关键基础设施遭破坏或中断,可能会对当地、区域甚至全球造成灾难性后果。这正是火山、海啸等灾难后汤加所发生的事情。

The Tonga volcanic eruption has revealed the vulnerabilities in our global telecommunication system

In the wake of a violent volcanic eruption in Tonga, much of the communication with residents on the islands remains at a standstill. In our modern, highly-connected world, more than 95 per cent of global data transfer occurs along fibre-optic cables that criss-cross through the world’s oceans.

在南太平洋岛国汤加发生猛烈的火山喷发后,岛上居民的大部分通信处于停滞状态。在我们这个高度互联的现代世界中,超过 95% 的全球数据传输是通过穿越海底的纵横交错的光缆进行的。

Breakage or interruption to this critical infrastructure can have catastrophic local, regional and even global consequences. This is exactly what has happened in Tonga following Saturday’s volcano-tsunami disaster. But this isn’t the first time a natural disaster has cut off critical submarine cables, and it won’t be the last.

对这一关键基础设施的破坏或中断可能会对当地、区域甚至全球造成灾难性后果。而这种后果正是此次汤加遭受火山海啸灾难后所要经历的又一个冲击。但这不是自然灾害第一次切断重要的海底电缆,也不会是最后一次。

What exactly has happened in Tonga?

汤加海底电缆到底怎么了?

Tonga was only connected to the global submarine telecommunication network in the last decade. Its islands have been heavily reliant on this system as it is more stable than other technologies such as satellite and fixed infrastructure.

汤加在过去十年才连接到全球海底电信网络。该岛国严重依赖海底电缆通信系统,因为它比卫星和固定基础设施等其他技术更稳定。

The situation in Tonga right now is still fluid, and certain details have yet to be confirmed – but it seems one or more volcanic processes (such as the tsunami, submarine landslide or other underwater currents) have snapped the 872km long fibre-optic cable connecting Tonga to the rest of the world. The cable system was not switched off or disconnected by the authorities.

汤加目前的情况仍然不稳定,某些细节还有待证实。但汤加连接世界其他国家和地区的关键——一条长872公里海底电缆——似乎被一个或多个火山活动(如海啸、海底滑坡或其他水下洋流)切断了。

This has had a massive impact. Tongans living in Australia and New Zealand can’t contact their loved ones to check on them. It has also made it difficult for Tongan government officials and emergency services to communicate with each other, and for local communities to determine aid and recovery needs.

这个故障造成的影响是巨大的。居住在澳大利亚和新西兰的汤加人无法联系到他们的亲人了解他们的情况。这也使汤加政府官员和紧急服务部门难以相互沟通,当地社区也难以确定救助需求。

Telecommunications are down, as are regular internet functions – and outages keep disrupting online services, making things worse. Tonga is particularly vulnerable to this type of disruption as there is only one cable connecting the capital Nuku'alofa to Fiji, which is more than 800km away. No inter-island cables exist.

海底网络电缆和电话信号中断,互联网信号亦如此,这严重影响了其在线服务,使情况变得更糟。汤加特别容易受到这类干扰的影响,因为汤加首都努库阿洛法和800 多公里外的斐济只有一条电缆连接,而两岛间没有其他电缆连接。

Risks to submarine cables elsewhere

海底电缆风险不只汤加有

Cables are laid in the shortest (that means cheapest) distance between two points on the Earth’s surface. They also have to be laid along particular geographic locations that allow easy placement, which is why many cables are clustered in choke points.

电缆铺设在地球表面两点之间最短的距离内,这么做是因为成本较低。它们还必须沿着便于放置的特定地理位置铺设,这就是许多电缆聚集在一些“咽喉要道”的原因。

Some good examples of choke points include the Hawaiian islands, the Suez Canal, Guam and the Sunda Strait in Indonesia. Inconveniently, these are also locations where major natural hazards tend to occur.

处于这些“咽喉要道”的地方如夏威夷群岛、苏伊士运河、关岛和印度尼西亚的舜达海峡。但麻烦的是,这些地区也往往是重大自然灾害发生的地方。

Once damaged it can take days to weeks (or even longer) to repair broken cables, depending on the cable’s depth and how easily accessible it is. At times of crisis, such outages make it much harder for governments, emergency services and charities to engage in recovery efforts.

一旦被损坏,人们可能需要几天到几周,甚至更长的时间来修复电缆,这取决于电缆的深度和容易接近的程度。在危机时刻,这样的停电使政府、紧急服务机构和慈善机构更难参与相关恢复工作。

Many of these undersea cables pass close to or directly over active volcanoes, regions impacted by tropical cyclones and/or active earthquake zones.

其中许多海底电缆靠近活火山或直接经过活火山,活火山是受热带气旋和/或活跃地震区影响的地区。

In many ways, Australia and New Zealand are also very vulnerable (as is the rest of the world). Australia is connected to the global cable network by a very small number of connection points, from just Sydney and Perth.

不仅是汤加,就连澳大利亚、新西兰等国家和地区的海底电缆也都十分脆弱(世界其他地区也是如此)。例如澳大利亚只从悉尼和珀斯两地通过极少数连接点连接到全球通信网络。

In regards to Sydney and the eastern seaboard of Australia, we know large underwater landslides have occurred off the coast of Sydney in the past. Future events could damage the critical portion of the network which links to us.

此前悉尼海岸曾发生过大型水下山体滑坡。未来,类似事件也很有可能破坏当地网络的关键“大动脉”。

How do we manage risk going forward?

如何管理未来的风险?

Given the vulnerability of the network, the first step to mitigating risk is to undertake research to quantify and evaluate the actual risk to submarine cables in particular places on the ocean floors and to different types of natural hazards. For example, tropical cyclones (hurricanes/typhoons) occur regularly, but other disaster such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen less often.

鉴于海底电缆通信网络的脆弱性,降低风险的第一步是进行研究,以量化和评估海底电缆对于海底特定地方和不同类型自然灾害的实际风险。例如,热带气旋(飓风/台风)经常发生,但地震和火山喷发等其他灾害发生的频率较低。

Currently, there is little publicly available data on the risk to the global submarine cable network. Once we know which cables are vulnerable, and to what sorts of hazards, we can then develop plans to reduce risk.

目前,有关全球海底电缆网络面临风险的公开数据很少。一旦了解了哪些电缆易受攻击,以及哪些危险类型易受影响,各国就可以制定降低风险的计划。

At the same time, governments and the telecommunication companies should find ways to diversify the way we communicate, such as by using more satellite-based systems and other technologies.

与此同时,政府和电信公司应该想方设法确保通信方式多样化,例如通过使用更多的基于卫星的系统和其他技术,从而减少对海底电缆通信系统的依赖。

未来两天陕西部分地区有降雨 北部有降温******

  24日全省大部晴天间多云,早晨最低气温:陕北地区1.2-10.3℃,关中1-10.8℃,陕南5.4-11.8℃,全省最低气温出现在长武站(1℃)。全省共计11站日最高气温超过20℃,全省最高气温出现在白河站(22.3℃)。陕北地区14-20.9℃,关中9.6-21.3℃,陕南15-22.3℃。西安24日最低气温10.3℃,最高气温19.6℃。

  根据最新预报,受西风槽东移影响,预计未来三天我省中南部部分地方有阵性降水天气。预计25日全省多云转阴天,陕北西部局地、关中西部、陕南西部有小雨或阵雨。

  预计西安25日多云转阴天,偏西地区局地有小阵雨。最高气温17℃,最低气温7℃ ,风向偏东风,风力2级。降水概率30%。26日阴有小雨;气温11~16℃。27日多云转阴, 气温:7~17℃。

  天气趋势:

  10月25日: 全省多云转阴天,陕北西部局地、关中西部、陕南西部有小雨或阵雨。

  10月26日:陕北多云间阴天,有4级左右偏北风。日平均气温下降4-6度,关中、陕南阴天间多云,大部分地方有小雨。

  10月27日:全省多云间阴天,陕北部分地方、关中南部、陕南有小雨或阵雨。

  华商报记者 毛蜜娜 通讯员 沈姣姣


来源:华商网-华商报

编辑:报社方正

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China's logistics demand maintains rapid growth in first three quarters******

BEIJING, Oct. 31 (Xinhua) -- China's logistics demand maintained relatively rapid growth in the first three quarters of 2021, despite the sporadic resurgence of COVID-19 cases, extreme weather conditions and power cuts, according to the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing (CFLP).。

In the first three quarters of the year, the total value of goods in the logistics sector was 234.5 trillion yuan (about 36.69 trillion U.S. dollars), rising 11.4 percent year on year. The growth was 9.4 percentage points higher than the same period last year, CFLP data shows.。

Logistics demand has generally maintained a recovery momentum since the beginning of the year, with its scale and growth rate higher than the same period before the pandemic, the CFLP said, adding that the sector shows great resilience and vitality.。

The federation has attributed the growth to rising logistics demand from industries and consumption.。

Data also shows that the total cost of logistics amounted to 12.1 trillion yuan during the period, a year-on-year increase of 15 percent.。

The cost was slightly higher than the pre-pandemic level in 2019, showing that upstream and downstream supply chains are still in recovery, the CFLP said.。

However, compared with the same period last year when COVID-19 was spreading rapidly, the efficiency of logistics operations has improved, and the resilience of supply chains has continued to increase, the CFLP noted.。

The CFLP said it expects the total value of goods distributed through logistics in China to grow at around 10 percent for the whole year. Enditem。

二哈照顾小主人,结果却教宝宝“爬行”,感觉要被它带偏了******

原标题:二哈照顾小主人,结果却教宝宝“爬行”,感觉要被它带偏了

有人常说狗狗跟孩子一样,都喜欢玩而且也很调皮,这也是为什么现在越来越多的人会选择让狗狗当孩子的玩伴,虽然这是一个不错的选择,但是也别想得太简单了。

如果你自己本身也喜欢毛孩子,另外家里没人反对的话,的确是可以考虑用这种方法让孩子的生活更丰富一些,另外也能让自己更轻松,但是在选择狗狗时还是要注意,可马虎不得。

首先并不是所有犬种都喜欢小孩,再者一些狗子把自己当成主人的“唯一”,不允许他人跟自己争夺主人的“宠爱”,甚至包括小主人,部分小型犬虽长得可爱又萌,但有时却也很小心眼。

我们带狗遛弯时,时常能看到一些大狗狗,除了大家熟悉的金毛犬外,像哈士奇、边牧、阿拉斯加都是很喜欢跟人接触的,它们很温和很友善,甚至懂得讨好小孩子。

别以为二哈平时只懂得卖萌,其实它除了脑洞很大外,包容心也是很大的,它不仅喜欢跟人接触交流,而且还非常喜欢小孩,哪怕小朋友惹恼它了,它最多也就躲着孩子。

有位宠主家里有一只哈士奇,这家伙已经两岁多了,不过在一年前宠主还生下了一个可爱的宝宝,从小主人出生开始,二哈就变成了它的玩伴,特别是从它四五个月开始。

小主人不久长得很快,而且也懂事了很多,它现在还懂得主动找二哈玩耍,不过让主人开心的是二哈很热情,从来不会拒绝跟小主人一起玩,虽然二哈要比宝宝大好多,但是它却很懂得分寸。

在前段时间,虽然小主人还不能自己走路,但是它已经学会了在地上爬行,可是宠主却发现了宝宝学会爬行背后的“导师”,没想到小主人还学得很快,那这位“导师”是谁呢?

其实教小主人学会爬行的“导师”就是二哈,宠主平时很放心让二哈跟宝宝一起玩耍,因为狗狗都是四只脚走路的,而且孩子最初也就是会爬行,加它这个年龄段模仿能力很强,所以很快就学会了。

二哈很喜欢宝宝,在家里只要小主人去找它,它都会跟宝宝玩一会儿,铲屎官发现小主人也很喜欢跟哈士奇待在一块,看来二哈在哄娃方面还是很有一套。

二哈在地板上跟小主人玩游戏,像是在“斗牛”一样,宝宝不停爬向二哈,二哈也会懂得吸引孩子的注意力,看着它们玩得那么开心,网友们表示是不是又想让他养二哈了。

在宝宝5岁以内,最好别让孩子单独跟狗狗待在一块,特别是大型犬,因为主人有没在场,有些狗狗对宝宝的态度是不一样的。

网友:小主人恐怕要被带偏了。(本文禁止“光明网”抄袭搬运)

赵睿收到NBL冠军队报价 老板主帅亲自招募诚意十足

1.风头无两的富商卷走中国人3000亿被抓 曾跑泰国当和尚

2.外交部:敦促美方停止抹黑中国军民融合发展政策

3.撒娇女人最好命?秦海璐:遇对的人能做娇妻

4.收评:创指涨1.03% 光伏板块掀涨停潮

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